I obtained my medical degrees at Cambridge and spent six years in multidisciplinary neuroscience research at the

{C}·      {C}National Hospital, Queen Square (EEG),

{C}·      {C}University of British Columbia (neuroanatomy),

{C}·      {C}Australian National University with John Eccles (neurophysiology)

{C}·      {C}Psychological Laboratory Cambridge with Oliver Zangwill (neuropsychology),

{C}·      {C}Galesburg Hospital with Harold Himwich (neuropsychopharmacology)

{C}·      {C}Worcester Foundation with Hudson Hoagland (neuropsychopharmacology)

before completing my clinical training at the Maudsley Hospital, London with Sir Aubrey Lewis. Then I joined the psychiatry faculty at Edinburgh University for twelve years, and then eighteen years as Charles Bryon Ireland Professor of Psychiatric Research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham where I am now Emeritus. Since 1991 I have  also worked at Vilayanur Ramachandran’s laboratory at the University of California San Diegeo.

I have served as President of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology from 1970-1974, Consultant to the World Health Organization from 1963-1968, and Editor of the International Review of Neurobiology from 1958-1991. I was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London in 1965 and a member of the Athenaeum in 1968. I have published over 200 scientific papers and twenty books.